Many people think that life expectancy is largely determined by genetics.
However, genes play a much smaller role than originally believed. It turns out that environmental factors like diet and lifestyle are key.
Here are 13 habits linked to a long life.
1. Avoid overeating
The link between calorie intake and longevity currently generates a lot of interest.
Animal studies suggest that a 10–50% reduction in normal calorie intake may increase maximum lifespan (1Trusted Source).
Studies of human populations renowned for longevity also observe links between low calorie intake, an extended lifespan, and a lower likelihood of disease (2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source).
What’s more, calorie restriction may help reduce excess body weight and belly fat, both of which are associated with shorter lifespans (5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).
That said, long-term calorie restriction is often unsustainable and can include negative side effects, such as increased hunger, low body temperature, and a diminished sex drive (3Trusted Source).
Whether calorie restriction slows aging or extends your lifespan is not yet fully understood.
Limiting your calories may help you live longer and protect against disease. However, more human research is needed.
2. Eat more nuts
Nuts are nutritional powerhouses.
They’re rich in protein, fiber, antioxidants, and beneficial plant compounds. What’s more, they’re a great source of several vitamins and minerals, such as copper, magnesium, potassium, folate, niacin, and vitamins B6 and E (8Trusted Source).
Several studies show that nuts have beneficial effects on heart disease, high blood pressure, inflammation, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, belly fat levels, and even some forms of cancer (9Trusted Source, 10Trusted Source, 11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source).
One study found that people who consumed at least 3 servings of nuts per week had a 39% lower risk of premature death (13Trusted Source).
Similarly, two recent reviews including over 350,000 people noted that those who ate nuts had a 4–27% lower risk of dying during the study period — with the greatest reductions seen in those who ate 1 serving of nuts per day (14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source).
Adding some nuts to your daily routine may keep you healthy and help you live longer.
3. Try out turmeric
When it comes to anti-aging strategies, turmeric is a great option. That’s because this spice contains a potent bioactive compound called curcumin.
Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin is thought to help maintain brain, heart, and lung function, as well as protect against cancers and age-related diseases (16Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source, 18Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source, 20, 21Trusted Source, 22Trusted Source).
Curcumin is linked to an increased lifespan in both insects and mice (23Trusted Source, 24Trusted Source, 25Trusted Source).
However, these findings have not always been replicated, and no human studies are currently available (26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source).
Nevertheless, turmeric has been consumed for thousands of years in India and is generally considered safe.
Curcumin, the main bioactive compound in turmeric, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some animal studies suggest that it can increase lifespan.
4. Eat plenty of healthy plant foods
Consuming a wide variety of plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and beans, may decrease disease risk and promote longevity.
For example, many studies link a plant-rich diet to a lower risk of premature death, as well as a reduced risk of cancer, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, depression, and brain deterioration (28Trusted Source, 29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source).
These effects are attributed to plant foods’ nutrients and antioxidants, which include polyphenols, carotenoids, folate, and vitamin C (32Trusted Source).
Accordingly, several studies link vegetarian and vegan diets, which are naturally higher in plant foods, to a 12–15% lower risk of premature death (33Trusted Source, 34).
The same studies also report a 29–52% lower risk of dying from cancer or heart, kidney, or hormone-related diseases (33Trusted Source, 34).
What’s more, some research suggests that the risk of premature death and certain diseases increases with greater meat consumption (35Trusted Source, 36Trusted Source, 37Trusted Source).
However, other studies report either nonexistent or much weaker links — with the negative effects seeming specifically linked to processed meat (38Trusted Source, 39Trusted Source).
Vegetarians and vegans also generally tend to be more health-conscious than meat eaters, which could at least partly explain these findings.
Overall, eating plenty of plant foods is likely to benefit health and longevity.
Eating plenty of plant foods is likely to help you live longer and lower your risk of various common diseases.
5. Stay physically active
It should come as no surprise that staying physically active can keep you healthy and add years to your life (40Trusted Source).
As few as 15 minutes of exercise per day may help you achieve benefits, which could include an additional 3 years of life (41Trusted Source).
Furthermore, your risk of premature death may decrease by 4% for each additional 15 minutes of daily physical activity (41Trusted Source).
A recent review observed a 22% lower risk of early death in individuals who exercised — even though they worked out less than the recommended 150 minutes per week (42Trusted Source).
People who hit the 150-minute recommendation were 28% less likely to die early. What’s more, that number was 35% for those who exercised beyond this guidance (42Trusted Source).
Finally, some research links vigorous activity to a 5% greater reduction in risk compared to low- or moderate-intensity activities (43Trusted Source).
Regular physical activity can extend your lifespan. Exercising more than 150 minutes per week is best, but even small amounts can help.
6. Don’t smoke
Smoking is strongly linked to disease and early death (44Trusted Source).
Overall, people who smoke may lose up to 10 years of life and be 3 times more likely to die prematurely than those who never pick up a cigarette (45Trusted Source).
Keep in mind that it’s never too late to quit.
One study reports that individuals who quit smoking by age 35 may prolong their lives by up to 8.5 years (46Trusted Source).
Furthermore, quitting smoking in your 60s may add up to 3.7 years to your life. In fact, quitting in your 80s may still provide benefits (44Trusted Source, 46Trusted Source).
Stopping smoking can significantly prolong your life — and it’s never too late to quit.
7. Moderate your alcohol intake
Heavy alcohol consumption is linked to liver, heart, and pancreatic disease, as well as an overall increased risk of early death (47Trusted Source).
However, moderate consumption is associated with a reduced likelihood of several diseases, as well as a 17–18% decrease in your risk of premature death (47Trusted Source, 48Trusted Source).
Wine is considered particularly beneficial due to its high content of polyphenol antioxidants.
Results from a 29-year study showed that men who preferred wine were 34% less likely to die early than those who preferred beer or spirits (49Trusted Source).
In addition, one review observed wine to be especially protective against heart disease, diabetes, neurological disorders, and metabolic syndrome (50Trusted Source).
To keep consumption moderate, it is recommended that women aim for 1–2 units or less per day and a maximum of 7 per week. Men should keep their daily intake to less than 3 units, with a maximum of 14 per week (51Trusted Source).
It’s important to note that no strong research indicates that the benefits of moderate drinking are greater than those of abstaining from alcohol.
In other words, there is no need to start drinking if you don’t usually consume alcohol.
If you drink alcohol, maintaining a moderate intake may help prevent disease and prolong your life. Wine may be particularly beneficial.
8. Prioritize your happiness
Feeling happy can significantly increase your longevity (52).
In fact, happier individuals had a 3.7% reduction in early death over a 5-year study period (53Trusted Source).
A study of 180 Catholic nuns analyzed their self-reported levels of happiness when they first entered the monastery and later compared these levels to their longevity.
Those who felt happiest at 22 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to still be alive six decades later (54Trusted Source).
Finally, a review of 35 studies showed that happy people may live up to 18% longer than their less happy counterparts (55Trusted Source).
Happiness likely has positive effects not only for your mood but also your lifespan.
9. Avoid chronic stress and anxiety
Anxiety and stress may significantly decrease your lifespan.
For instance, women suffering from stress or anxiety are reportedly up to two times more likely to die from heart disease, stroke, or lung cancer (56Trusted Source, 57Trusted Source, 58Trusted Source).
Similarly, the risk of premature death is up to three times higher for anxious or stressed men compared to their more relaxed counterparts (59, 60Trusted Source, 61Trusted Source).
If you’re feeling stressed, laughter and optimism could be two key components of the solution.
Studies show that pessimistic individuals have a 42% higher risk of early death than more optimistic people. However, both laughter and a positive outlook on life can reduce stress, potentially prolonging your life (62Trusted Source, 63Trusted Source, 64Trusted Source, 65).
Finding ways to reduce your anxiety and stress levels can extend your lifespan. Maintaining an optimistic outlook on life can be beneficial, too.
10. Nurture your social circle
Researchers report that maintaining healthy social networks can help you live up to 50% longer (66Trusted Source).
In fact, having just 3 social ties may decrease your risk of early death by more than 200% (67Trusted Source).
Studies also link healthy social networks to positive changes in heart, brain, hormonal, and immune function, which may decrease your risk of chronic diseases (68Trusted Source, 69Trusted Source, 70Trusted Source, 71Trusted Source, 72Trusted Source).
A strong social circle might also help you react less negatively to stress, perhaps further explaining the positive effect on lifespan (73Trusted Source, 74Trusted Source).
Finally, one study reports that providing support to others may be more beneficial than receiving it. In addition to accepting care from your friends and family, make sure to return the favor (75Trusted Source).
Nurturing close relationships may result in decreased stress levels, improved immunity, and an extended lifespan.
11. Be more conscientious
Conscientiousness refers to a person’s ability to be self-disciplined, organized, efficient, and goal-oriented.
Based on data from a study that followed 1,500 boys and girls into old age, kids who were considered persistent, organized, and disciplined lived 11% longer than their less conscientious counterparts (76Trusted Source, 77Trusted Source).
Conscientious people may also have lower blood pressure and fewer psychiatric conditions, as well as a lower risk of diabetes and heart or joint problems (78Trusted Source).
This might be partly because conscientious individuals are less likely to take dangerous risks or react negatively to stress — and more likely to lead successful professional lives or be responsible about their health (79Trusted Source, 80Trusted Source, 81).
Conscientiousness can be developed at any stage in life through steps as small as tidying up a desk, sticking to a work plan, or being on time.
Being conscientious is associated with a longer lifespan and fewer health problems in old age.
12. Drink coffee or tea
Both coffee and tea are linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease.
For instance, the polyphenols and catechins found in green tea may decrease your risk of cancer, diabetes, and heart disease (82Trusted Source, 83, 84Trusted Source, 85Trusted Source, 86Trusted Source).
Similarly, coffee is linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers and brain ailments, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (87, 88, 89Trusted Source, 90, 91Trusted Source, 92).
Additionally, both coffee and tea drinkers benefit from a 20–30% lower risk of early death compared to non-drinkers (93Trusted Source, 94, 95Trusted Source, 96).
Just remember that too much caffeine can also lead to anxiety and insomnia, so you may want to curb your intake to the recommended limit of 400 mg per day — around 4 cups of coffee (97Trusted Source, 98Trusted Source).
It’s also worth noting that it generally takes six hours for caffeine’s effects to subside. Therefore, if you have trouble getting enough high-quality sleep, you may want to shift your intake to earlier in the day.
Moderate consumption of tea and coffee may benefit healthy aging and longevity.
13. Develop a good sleeping pattern
Sleep is crucial for regulating cell function and helping your body heal.
A recent study reports that longevity is likely linked to regular sleeping patterns, such as going to bed and waking up around the same time each day (99Trusted Source).
Sleep duration also seems to be a factor, with both too little and too much being harmful.
For instance, sleeping less than 5–7 hours per night is linked to a 12% greater risk of early death, while sleeping more than 8–9 hours per night could also decrease your lifespan by up to 38% (100Trusted Source, 101).
Too little sleep may also promote inflammation and increase your risk of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. These are all linked to a shortened lifespan (102Trusted Source, 103Trusted Source, 104Trusted Source, 105Trusted Source).
On the other hand, excessive sleep could be linked to depression, low physical activity, and undiagnosed health conditions, all of which may negatively affect your lifespan (106Trusted Source).
Developing a sleep routine that includes 7–8 hours of sleep each night may help you live longer.
The bottom line
Longevity may seem beyond your control, but many healthy habits may lead you to a ripe, old age.
These include drinking coffee or tea, exercising, getting enough sleep, and limiting your alcohol intake.
Taken together, these habits can boost your health and put you on the path to a long life